Jan 12 & 14
M: Course Intro
W: Organizational Systems
Week 2
Jan 19 & 21
M:No Class
W: Systems Case Analysis
Week 3
Jan 26 & 28
M: Organizational Stucture
W: Organizational Stucture Case Analysis
Week 4
Feb 2 & 4
M: External Environments
W:External Environments Case Analysis
Week 5
Feb 9 & 11
M: Interorganizational Relationships
W:Interorganizational Relationships Case Analysis
Week 6
Feb 16 & 18
M: Enterprise Resources Systems
W: Enterprise Resources Systems Case Analysis
Sat, Feb 21
Assigment #1.1
Due by 10pm
Online Submission
Week 7
Feb 23 & 25
M: Organizational Analytics/ Decision Making
W: Organizational Analytics/ Decision Making Case Analysis
Week 8
March 2 & 4
M: Big Data Analytics
W: Big Data Analytics Case Analysis
Sat, March 7
Assigment #1.2
Due by 10pm
Online Submission
Week 9
March 9 & 11
M: Organizational Culture
W: Organizational Culture Case Analysis
Week 10
March 16 & 18
Spring Break
No Class
Week 11
March 23 & 25
M: Leadership & Managing
W: Leadership & Managing Case Analysis
Week 12
March 30 & April 1
M: Health/Medical Informatics
W: Health/Medical Informatics Case Anlaysis
Sat, April 4
Assigment #2
Due by 10pm
Online Submission
Week 13
April 6 & 8
M: World of Work
W: World of Work Case Analysis
Week 14
April 13 & 15
M: Disruptive Technologies & Innovation
W: Disruptive Technologies & Innovation Case Analysis
Week 15
April 20 & 22
M: IT Development
W: IT Development
Week 16
April 27 & 29
M: Course Wrap-Up & Final Assignment Prep
W: NO Class - Work on Final Assignment
Sat, May 5
Assigment #3
Due by 10pm
Online Submission


We live our daily lives in organizations and we will spend our professional careers in organizations. Z513 is an introduction to information, technology, and social behavior in the organizational context. Concepts of organization theory and organization behavior, including knowledge and information management, organizational analytics, and organizational intelligence, provide a critical foundation for managing information, people, and information and communication technologies (ICTs) in rapidly changing and dynamic environments. where technologies disrupt and innovation is the expected norm. It is a complement to other management courses.

Z513 is designed for students in the MIS, MLS, and dual degree programs as well as other departments in the university. Take this course if you plan to be on the staff of a small or large company, non-profit organization, government agency, library, or school and to work in an administrative, managerial, or supervisory capacity or as a member of a project team.

The course integrates theory with practice through case-based analysis. We read articles that describe many different types of organizational contexts/settings and work activities. There are no exams. Assignments are designed to prepare students for the writing skills they need as managers and supervisors. Weekly readings are generally between 30 and 50 to 60 pages. Assigned weekly reading is enhanced by recommended readings.

By the end of the course, students should be able to:

I especially like what Tony Wagner, the Harvard-based education expert and author of The Global Achievement Gap, says: "There are three basic skills that students need if they want to thrive in a knowledge economy: the ability to do critical thinking and problem-solving; the ability to communicate effectively; and the ability to collaborate." (Excerpted from:


Materials for the course are located in Oncourse in the Z513 worksite.

There is no required textbook for this class. Instead, we rely principally on the journal literature and articles located on the web. Multiple copies of the Daft textbook, selected pages that we read during the first month of the course, are on four-hour reserve in the Wells Library Media & Reserves.

Lectures and readings for the first part of this course are drawn from:

    Daft, R. L. (2001). Organization theory and design (7th ed.). Cincinnati, OH: South-Western College Publishing.
    Daft, R. L. (2010). Organization theory and design (10th ed.). Cincinnati, OH: South-Western College Publishing.
    NOTE: Daft is one of the leading theorists in organization behavior. Please note that if you do purchase the book, there are later editions because Daft revises parts of his book every few years; our class will use chapters from both 7th and 10th editions because they introduce key concepts in the study of organizational behavior. Be aware that page numbers of newer editions differ slightly from those indicated in this syllabus.

Other Good Books to Know About:

    Aldrich, H. (1999). Organizations evolving. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
    NOTE: Please note that there is a second edition to this book published in 2006. See next reference.
    Aldrich, H., & Ruef, M. (2006). Organizations and environments (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
    Avgerou, C., Ciborro, C., & Land, F. (2004). The social study of information and communication technology: Innovation, actors, and contexts. London: Oxford University Press.
    NOTE: See book review in Information Technology & People, 18(3), 2005, 300-302.
    Brynjolfsson, E., & Saunders, A. (2010). Wired for innovation: How information technology is reshaping the economy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    NOTE: An easy read but filled with lots of insights and from extensive research and ideas for an agenda for research.
    Garcia, A. C., Dawes, M. E., Kohne, M. L., Miller, F. M., & Groschwitz, S. F. (2006). Workplace studies and technological change. In B. Cronin (Ed.), Annual Review of Library and Information Science, 40, 393-487. doi:10.1002/aris.1440400117
    NOTE: This chapter provides a very valuable introduction into the various theoretical frameworks and methodologies for studying the introduction of technology into the workplace, as well as summarizes some of the now-classic workplace studies about the problematics of designing and implementing information and communication technologies. It is a must read for students studying HCI and group collaboration software.
    Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
    Kallinikos, J. (2006). The consequences of information: Institutional implications of technological change. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
    NOTE: See book review in The Information Society, 24(2), 2008, 121-122.
    Kallinikos, J. (2011). Governing through technology: Information artefacts and social practice. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
    Jordan, B. (Ed.). (2013). Advancing ethnography in corporate environments: Challenges and emerging opportunities. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press.
    NOTE: Ethnographers meet with opposing views. Technology complements "traditional" ethnographic practice. Well worth a read.
    Luff, P., Hindamarsh, J., & Heath, C. (2000). Workplace studies: Recovering work practice and informing system design. London: Cambridge University Press.
    Mlodinow, L. (2008). The drunkard's walk: How randomness rules our lives. New York: Random House, Inc.
    Northouse, P. G. (2007). Leadership: Theory and practice (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
    Northouse, P. G. (2009). Introduction to leadership: Concepts and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, In.
    NOTE: This is a practical guide to leadership.
    Pettigrew, A. M., & Fenton, E. M. (Eds.). (2000). The innovating organization. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.
    Rummler, G. A., & Brache, A. P. (1995). Improving performance: How to manage the white space in the organization chart (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
    NOTE: This book has been recommended by a former Z513 Organizational Informatics student. The premises about how to understand organizations conform to the framework for this course.
    von Hellens, L., Nielsen, S., & Beekhuyzen, J. (2004). Qualitative case studies on implementation of enterprise wide systems. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Inc.
    Yates, J., & Van Maanen, J. (Eds.). (2001). Information technology and organizational transformation: History, rhetoric, and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
    NOTE: This edited edition contains articles that were formerly published in journals.

Many other books and articles are contained in a supplemental bibliography that is augmented irregularly. It is available in the Oncourse Resources folder. Students are encouraged to bring research published in articles or the press to the instructor's attention.

WEEK 1: Course Overview & Organizational Systems.

M: Introduction to the importance of organizations and organizations as systems, social networks, processes, and structures. Nevertheless, people--whether bosses, employees, administrators, or users, are the key to designing and implementing technology in organizations and persuading them to use your organization's "product," whether that item is (new) software, a (new) system, a document, or a (new) search tool. The socio-cognitive-affective aspects of introducing change in an organization are critical for understanding the role of technology in organizations.

Required Readings:

    Brooks, D. (2010, May 27). Drilling for certainty. New York Times. Retrieved from
    Brynjolfsson, E. (2003, July). The IT productivity gap. Optimize Magazine, 21. Retrieved from
    NOTE: See his book Wired for Innovation: How Information Technology is Reshaping the Economy that extends the assessment made in this article as well as presents an agenda for research in innovation.
    Gawande, A. (2007, December 10). The checklist. The New Yorker. Retrieved from
    NOTE: Also an excellent article that introduces the core concepts of technology and behavior and their interdependencies, which have consequences for improvements in quality and reductions in error. At least two books have been published in the last two years, one by Gawande himself on the subject of checklists as a technology for reducing error.
    Humphries, C. (2012). Life in the concrete jungle. Nature, 491(22), 514-515.
    NOTE: This is a very short article that emphasizes the interdependency of the natural and social worlds. It is important because all too many people who write on social informatics neglect these interactions.
    Jackson, E. (2012, April 12). Here's why Google and Facebook might completely disappear in the next 5 years. Retrieved from
    NOTE: This article introduces another core concept of this course, that of disruptive technology. Our last course session readings and Assignment 3 are devoted to this concept.

W: The changing paradigm of organizational design: From mechanical to natural systems and from closed to open systems. How to think about organizational change. This session also introduces the concept of "normal accidents" that has entered the vernacular of the study of complex organizations: complex systems, loose and tight coupling, ambiguity, and unintended consequences. These concepts are alsotaken up in the fifth session on the external environment.

These first articles are all "fast reads" but they give insights into the core concepts of the course and provide the foundation for everything we read throughout the semester, as well for all the assignments. Just concentrate on the main points (argument) that the authors make.

Required Readings:

    Pidgeon, N. (2011, September 22). In retrospect. Normal accidents. Nature, 477, 404-405.
    Daft, R. L. (2001). Organization theory and design (7th ed.). Cincinnati, OH: South-Western College Publishing.
    Daft, R. L. (2010). Organization theory and design (10th ed.). Cincinnati, OH: South-Western College Publishing.
    Harrison, M. I., Koppel, R., Bar-Lev, S. (2007). Unintended consequences of information technologies in health care: An interactive sociotechnical analysis. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 14(5), 542-549. doi:10.1197/jamia.M2384

Supplemental Readings:

    Beniger, J. R. (1990). Conceptualizing information technology as organization, and vice versa. In J. Fulk & C. Steinfield (Eds.), Organizations and communication technology (pp. 29-45). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
    Free Management Library. (2009). Systems thinking. Retrieved from
    NOTE: Well worth perusing the web site and its many useful links.
    Rosenthal, E. (2010, May 28). Our fix-it faith and the oil spill. New York Times. Retrieved from
    NOTE: The Pidgeon, Brooks, and Rosenthal articles introduce one of the central theoretical frameworks for this course and reflects the core concept of uncertainty and the extent of our ability to predict outcomes or effects of decisions. The framework of Normal Accidents is the subject of one of our sessions and Assignment 3.
    Sikkel, D. (2013). Brand relations and life course: Why old consumers love their brands. Journal of Marketing Analytics, 1(2), 71–80.
    NOTE: This is a short article that helps explain why it is so difficult to change people's acceptance of new technologies. Concentrate on the argument and the results of the two studies that are described (i.e., do not be put off by the statistical methods).

WEEK 2: Systems Case Review.


W: This session's readings for Perrow's introduction to these concepts (Chapter 3 of his book) and Weick's application and extension of Perrow's framework for understanding how to reduce error for systems that require high reliability. We return to these concepts and Perrow's theoretical framework throughout the semester (see, for example, recommended readings in the session on Organizational Culture, including articles by Feldman, Meyerson, and Vaughan). Assignment 3 offers an opportunity to develop a more in-depth understanding of normal accidents with an analysis of error in hospital responses to patients, airplane disasters such as Air France Flight #445, and environmental conditions like the tsunami that destroyed the Japanese nuclear plant. Information, communication, and systems analysis are necessary for understanding how to respond to technoological disasters, even when they are intra- or interorganizational.

Required Readings:

    Perrow, C. (1999). Introduction (pp. 3-14). Normal accidents: Living with high-risk technologies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Perrow, C. (1999). Chapter 3 (pp. 62-100). Normal accidents: Living with high-risk technologies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    NOTE: This chapter is essential for understanding how accidents occur. It provides the conceptual foundation and definitions for a systems analysis. Be sure to read this chapter as part of the theory and concepts section for Assignment #3 (if you select a case study in "Normal Accidents").
    Weick, K. E. (1990). The vulnerable system: An analysis of the Tenerife air disaster. Journal of Management, 16(3), 571-593. doi:10.1177/014920639001600304

    NOTE: Weick's study adds the needed understanding and theoretical concepts from social psychology to Perrow's framework of normal accidents.

Supplemental Readings:

    Weick, K. E., Sutcliffe, K. M., & Obstfeld, D. (1999). Organizing for high reliability: Processes of collective mindfulness. In R. I. Sutton & B. M. Staw (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior: An annual series of analytical essays and critical reviews, 21, 81-124.
    NOTE: This chapter was later published in a very readable 2nd edition book: Managing the Unexpected: Resilient Performance in an Age of Uncertainty by Karl E. Weick and Kathleen M. Sutcliffe (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2007).This analysis is very relevant for Assignment #3.

WEEK 3: Organizational Stucture.

M: This session introduces basic concepts of organizational structure and shows how to design structure as it appears on the formal organizational chart. We'll take an information-processing and communication perspective and then look at alternative structures and their implications. Then, we turn things on their head by reading Mintzberg's story of what's really going on in organizations and why organizational charts don't tell the whole story. Next, we'll look at examples of the failure of organizational structure and examine Poltrock and Grudin's study of two large software product development organizations. What lessons does Mintzberg's story suggest? What advice on organizational design would you give to the leadership/management of the two software firms?

Required Readings:

    Daft, R. L. (2001). Organization theory and design (7th ed.). Cincinnati, OH: South-Western College Publishing.
    Mintzberg, H., & Van der Heyden, L. (1999). Organigraphs: Drawing how companies really work. Harvard Business Review, 77(5), 87-94.
    NOTE: A search in google will provide graphical illustrations of the different forms that organigraphs take. I have included one such example in the session readings. More explanation is available in Wikipedia.
    Procter, R., Voss, A., & Asgari-Targhi, M. (2013). Fostering the human infrastructure of e-research. Information, Communication & Society, 16(10), 1668-1691. DOI: 10.1080/1369118X.2012.715667
    NOTE: This article is relevant for understanding why "Big Data" are so diffiicult to use, not just because they are "big." A session on "Big Data" follows in Session 9.
    Poltrock, S. E., & Grudin, J. (1994). Organizational obstacles to interface design and development: Two participant-observer studies. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 1(1), 52-80. doi:10.1145/174630.174633
    NOTE: This article remains as current and relevant today as it was when Poltrock and Grudin first investigated why the two software companies were experiencing difficulties in developing new versions of their software products. I don't understand why we have learned so little from work that was done two decades ago, but it seems that we have not. Read the case studies carefully and the insights that the two authors took away and their recommendations.

W: This session explore will examine organizational stucture in context using case analysis.

Required Readings:

    Daft, R. L. (2010). Organization theory and design (10th ed.). Cincinnati, OH: South-Western College Publishing.

Supplemental Readings:

    George, J. F., Carlson, J. R., & Valacich, J. S. (2013). Media selection as a strategic component of communication. MIS Quarterly, 37(4), 1233-1251.
    NOTE: This article examines the relationship between media, work, and communication and makes an important contribution to our understanding.
    Leonardi, P. M. (2013). When does technology use enable network change in organizations? A comparative study of feature use and shared affordances. MIS Quarterly, 37(3), 749-775.
    Sarker, S., Ahuja, M., Sarker, S., & Kirkeby, S. (2011). The role of communication and trust in global virtual teams: A social network perspective. Journal of Management Information Systems, 28(1), 273-300.

WEEK 4: External Environments

M: This session explores the surprises that the environment can bring and how to assess environments so that organizations can respond to them. We'll examine what the organization's environment looks like. We'll look at the ways that environment influences an organization and what an organization needs to do to adapt to environmental uncertainty and change. We'll concentrate our attention on two critical aspects of the environment that affect the organization: the need for information and the need for financial and material resources. By the time we finish this session we should have a pretty good understanding of why so many small businesses do not succeed (e.g., firms that went "belly up" at the end of the 1990s); why bookstore cafes have presented challenges to public and university libraries; why university cafeterias that serve nutritional food have difficulty competing with fast-food restaurants; and why it makes sense to develop interorganizational alliances and when you would do this.

Required Readings:

    Daft, R. L. (2001). Organization theory and design (7th ed.). Cincinnati, OH: South-Western College Publishing.
    English-Lueck, J. A., Darrah, C. N., & Saveri, A. (2002). Trusting strangers: Work relationships in four high-tech communities. Information, Communication & Society, 5(1), 90-108. doi:10.1080/13691180110117677
    NOTE: This article is from a very interesting project called "The Silicon Valley Cultures Project." Papers and books have been published from this project; for more information see Professor Lueck's home page and follow the links:

W: This session explore will examine external environments in context using case analysis.

Recommended Readings:

    Gupta, A. (2009). Organization's External Environment Practical Management: Designing a better workplace (website)
    Business Case Studies UK(2013) First Group: Managing external influences
    Business Case Studies UK(2013) Johnson Matthey: Using PEST analysis to support decision making
    Business Case Studies UK(2013) United Airlines: Responding ot a changing external business envionment

WEEK 5: Interorganizational Relationships.

M: This session links the previous session that introduced the concept of system, elaborating on complex systems and how networks can strengthen internal and external organizational relationships. But networks require a great deal effort to succeed; they just don't happen. Although the Roberts article and the two responses written by practitioners are in total somewhat long, they are very important for understanding how to conceptualize networks.

Required Readings:

    Daft, R. L. (2001). Organization theory and design (7th ed.). Cincinnati, OH: South-Western College Publishing.
    Daft, R. L. (2010). Organization theory and design (10th ed.). Cincinnati, OH: South-Western College Publishing.
    Roberts, N. (2011). Beyond smokestacks and silos: Open-source, web-enabled coordination in organizations and networks. Public Administration Review, 71(5), 677-693.
    NOTE: There are two practitioner responses to Roberts: (1) Jensen & Gallenson (pp. 694-596); (2) Longley & Zimmerman (pp. 697-699.). This is a very important article and worth reading for the typology that the author creates for understanding networks and coordination.

W: This session explore will examine interorganizational relationships in context using case analysis.

Required Readings:

    Daft, R. L. (2001). Organization theory and design (7th ed.). Cincinnati, OH: South-Western College Publishing.
    -CASE STUDY Barnes & Noble (p. 129)
    -CASE STUDY Wal-Mart (p. 135)
    -CASE STUDY Rowe Furniture Company (p. 145)
    -CASE STUDY Toshiba (p. 151)
    -CASE STUDY Toyota Motor Corporation (p. 174)
    -CASE STUDY Empire Tool Company (p. 176)
    -CASE STUDY Volkswagon (p. 177)

WEEK 6: Enterprise Resources Planning Systems

This begins the second part of this course, which focuses on information technology (IT) and knowledge management (KM). IT and KM are essential components of successful organizations. In today's economy, the basic economic resource is information, which needs to be managed to produce knowledge for decision making, just the way organizations manage cash flow, human resources, or raw materials. The primary goal of IT systems is to support efforts to manage and leverage organizational knowledge. KM is a crucial management tool for becoming a learning organization that effectively acquires, creates, and transfers knowledge across the organization and modifies its activities to reflect new knowledge and insight.

This module reflects on the use of data and information to improve decision making and evaluation of organizational success; "Big Data" is a valued organizational resource. Data and information create institutional memory, but only if decisions about what and how to collect are made and how they are managed. Memory is also critical for the transmission of information from one organizational member or group of members to another. Memory is situated in the recordkeeping practices of the organization that are encoded in large-scale information systems. How is "memory" created? Herbert Simon (1991, p. 126) writes that, "What has been learned has been stored in individual heads (or in files or data banks). Its transience or permanence depends on what people leave behind them when they depart from an organization or move from one position to another." He then asks, "Has what they have learned been transmitted to others or stored in ways that will permit it to be recovered when relevant?"

These sessions illustrate the cross-cutting nature of ILS programs. By the end of these sessions, you'll see the linkage to courses in the other tracks, including information architecture (organization and representation), systems analysis, human-computer interaction, social informatics, management, digital humanities, big data, and others. KM emphasizes people as valuable resources. We'll be getting into the subject of the critical importance of human resources (us) in much more detail in Part Three of this course.

M : Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems were introduced in the early 1990s as a way to ensure that corporate-wide institutional memory is efficiently and effectively organized, integrated, managed, processed, maintained, and reported for decision making ("analytics"). This session introduces us to the design of ERPs. Several of the recommended readings, particularly those about ERP in a university environment, point to the difficulties in implementing ERPs designed for a university business model that differs from that of the private sector. We use many ERPs every day in the IU environment.

Required Readings:

    Daft, R. L. (2001). Organization theory and design (7th ed.). Cincinnati, OH: South-Western College Publishing.
    NOTE: This is background information about information systems. The terms are in use in all sectors of the economy. These sections are a very fast read: just skim the materials. The vocabulary (concepts) in these pages is part of Assignments 1.1 and 1.2.
    Malhotra, R., & Temponi, C. (2010). Critical decisions for ERP integration: Small business issues. International Journal of Information Management, 30, 28-37. doi:10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2009.03.001
    NOTE: This article introduces the basic concepts of ERPs. There is no need to read this article closely. Most of the information you need is in the tables and figures that are provided; read them to understand the management decision processes required to implement an ERP.
    Waring, T., & Skoumpopoulou, D. (2013). Emergent cultural change: Unintended consequences of a Strategic Information Technology Services implementation in a United Kingdom university. Studies in Higher Education, 38(9), 1265-1281. http:/ 201: 625495.
    NOTE: The discussion about "unintended consequences" is particularly relevant for the study of all socio-technoical systems and for technology in general, as well for the analysis in Assignment #3.

W: This session explore will examine enterpirse resources planning systems in context using case analysis.

    Te'eni, D. (2004). Socio-technical aspects of ERP implementation: The central role of communication. In L. von Hellens, S. Nielsen, & J. Beekhuyzen (Eds.), Qualitative case studies on implementation of enterprise wide systems (pp. 1-21). Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing.
    NOTE: This remains a classic study and a must-read in information systems research. Te'eni has played an important role in the Association for Information Systems.
    Krotov, V., Boukhonine, S., & Ives, B. (2011). ERP implementation gone terribly wrong: The case of Natural Springs. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 28(April), 277-282.
    NOTE: Good, short introduction to how to think about ERPs, no matter the organization. For an important article on ERP implementation and success factors, see below Recommended article by Mengistie et al. (2013). The article discusses why ERP implementation in federal governmental agencies is different (and more complex) than its adoption and implementation in the business environment. Although the focus is on U.S. government agencies, research carried out in other national settings supports the findings of these authors. Implementation is also a complex process fraught with potential failure in universities (see Boudreau, 2005, below in Recommended).

Supplemental Readings:

    Mengistie, A. A.,Heaton, D., & and Rainforth, M. (2013). Analysis of the critical success factors for ERP systems implementation in U.S. federal offices. In F. Piazolo & M. Felderer (Eds.), Innovation and future of enterprise Information Systems. Lecture notes in information systems and organisation, 4 (pp. 183-198). Berlin: Springer-Verlap. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-37021-2_15
    Allen, J. (2005). Value conflicts in enterprise systems. Information Technology & People, 18(1), 33-49. doi:10.1108/09593840510584612
    Appan, R., & Browne, G. J. (2012). The impact of analyst-induced misinformation on the requirements elicitation process. MIS Quarterly, 36(1), 85-106.
    Boudreau, M-C. (2004). Post-implementation use of a complex technology: The case of a southeastern U.S. university. In L. von Hellens, S. Nielsen, & J. Beekhuyzen (Eds.), Qualitative case studies on implementation of enterprise wide systems (pp. 22-39). Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing.
    Barreau, D. K. (2001). "Making do." Adapting transaction systems to organizational needs. Library & Information Science Research, 23, 27-43. doi:10.1016/S0740-8188(00)00066-9
    NOTE: Good introduction to transaction processing systems as workflow systems, precursors to ERPs, and potential sites where ILS students might work in their future careers. The article is also useful for illustrating how context makes a difference in implementing information systems and why adapting software designed for other economic sectors creates problems for organizations. A particularly useful warning to those who buy software that has not been written specifically for an organization's information needs.

WEEK 7: Organizational Anlaytics/Decision Making

M: Managers spend at least 80 percent of their time actively exchanging information for decision making and evaluation. They need this information to hold the organization together. Effectively using IT, including the Internet, and managing the operational processes in information-intensive and knowledge-based organizations has been fundamental to the success of for-profit consulting companies such as Bloomburg, Reuters Group PLC, and Business Wire that provide financial or business and corporate information; public libraries that provide a wide array of information in different formats to meet the information needs of their patrons; non-profit organizations like the American Red Cross that must assure an error-free blood supply; and for-profit pharmaceutical drug wholesaling companies such as Cardinal Health and Bergen Brunswig that provide sophisticated reporting services to their larger national customers.

How do staff in organizations make strategic use of information and communication technologies? How do we locate ourselves in the knowledge economy? What do managers need to know about "data-to-information-to-knowledge" in organizational settings? How do you manage knowledge of your users (staff, customers, patrons)? How much investment should organizations make in organizational knowledge management systems? What do the studies in this session suggest?

"Mindfulness" is a core concept, although the term is not employed by Drucker. The argument is made that to ensure good design and implementation, managers and staff must be very attentive to the organizational systems in which they work. Mindfulness is necessary to reduce error. And, furthermore, as Teper et al. write, " mindfulness promotes an openness and sensitivity to subtle changes in affective states, which are essential in signaling the need for control and in energizing its execution." The concept is reinforced in the Recommended readings of Butler and Gray, Weick and Sutcliffe, Hafenbrack, and Teper et al. The concept is reintroduced in the session on Health and Medical Informatics and will assist analysis of "Normal Accidents" for Assignment #3.

Required Readings:

    Daft, R. L. (2010). Organization theory and design (10th ed.). Cincinnati, OH: South-Western College Publishing.
    Drucker, P. F. (2001, October 16). What information do executives need? National Post online. Retrieved from
    Norris, D. M., & Baer, L. L. (2013). Building organizational capacity for analytics. (PUB No. 9012). Retrieved from
    NOTE: This is an excellent introduction to understanding organizational analytics, even though the focus is on higher education. Please read pages: 6-18 AND 49-58.
    Schulman, J., Kuperman, G. J., Kharbanda, A., & Kaushal, R. (2007). Discovering how to think about a hospital patient information system by struggling to evaluate it: A committee's journal. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 14(5), 537-541. doi:10.1197/jamia.M2436
    NOTE: Good article for understanding the process of systems analysis, a precursor to the ILS introductory course in systems analysis.
    Butler, B. S., & Gray, P. H. (2006). Reliability, mindfulness, and information systems. MIS Quarterly, 30(2), 211-224.
    NOTE: This is a theoretical article that emphasizes the need for mindfulness to decrease error and to design information systems. The underlying concept is "mindfulness," both for this article and the Weick et al. article below. Ellen J. Langer (1989) is the author of the "mindfulness" concept. We will read more articles on the concept of "mindfulness" in the session on An Introduction to Medical/Health Informatics. This concept is relevant for Assignment #3.

W: This session will analysis individual case studies based on the course content to date.

Required Readings:

    Daft, R. L. (2010). Organization theory and design (10th ed.). Cincinnati, OH: South-Western College Publishing.
    Daft, R. L. (2001). Organization theory and design (7th ed.). Cincinnati, OH: South-Western College Publishing.
    -CASE STUDY Turner Industries (p. 245)
    -CASE STUDY Nike (p. 249)
    -CASE STUDY Monorail (p. 252)
    -CASE STUDY DPR Construction (p. 252)
    -CASE STUDY Novartis (p. 264)
    -CASE STUDY Weyerhaeuser Company (p. 239)
    -CASE STUDY IBM (p. )

Recommended Readings:

    Brown, S. A., Dennis, A. R., Burley, P. (2013). Knowledge sharing and knowledge management system avoidance: The role of knowledge type and the social network in bypassing an organizational knowledge management system. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 64(10), 2013-2033.
    NOTE: This is an outstanding article on why social networks are the preferred way to obtain information. Good lessons for information retrieval system designers.
    Weick, K. E., Sutcliffe, K. M., & Obstfeld, D. (1999). Organizing for high reliability: Processes of collective mindfulness. In R. I. Sutton & B. M. Staw (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior: An annual series of analytical essays and critical reviews, 21, 81-124.
    NOTE: This chapter was later published in a very readable 2nd edition book: Managing the Unexpected: Resilient Performance in an Age of Uncertainty by Karl E. Weick and Kathleen M. Sutcliffe (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2007).This article is very relevant for Assignment #3.
    Hafenbrack, A. C., Kinias, Z., & Barsade, S. G. (2014).Debiasing the mind through meditation: Mindfulness and the sunk-cost bias. Psychological Science, 25(2), 369–376. DOI: 10.1177/0956797613503853
    NOTE: The concept of mindfulness is relevant for Assignment #3.
    O'Neil, P. D., & Krane, D. (2012).Policy and organizational change in the Federal Aviation Administration: The ontogenesis of a high-reliability organization. Public Administration Review, 72(1), 98–111. DOI: 10.111/j.1540-6210.2011.02479.x.
    NOTE: This is another article that is relevant for Assignment #3 if you choose to discuss a case using the framework of "Normal Accidents.".
    Nieves, J., & Osorio1, J. (2013).The role of social networks in knowledge creation. Knowledge Management Research & Practice, 11, 62-77.
    Karunakaran, A., Reddy, M. C., & Spence, P. R. (2013). Toward a model of collaborative information behavior in organizations. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 64, 2437-2451.
    Nonaka, I., & Konno, N. (1998). The concept of "ba": Building a foundation for knowledge creation. California Management Review, 40(3), 40-54.
    NOTE: Nonaka's work was aemployed as a means to rethink how to create and stimulate innovation in organizations, emphasizing a rather different notion of human capital than Americans were used to. The concept of ba became employed in American corporations during the 1990s; whether the concept could be successfully transferred from the Japanese culture to the American one remains a question.
    MacIndoe, M., & Barman, E. (2012). How organizational stakeholders shape performance measurement in nonprofits: Exploring a multidimensional measure. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 42(4), 716–738. DOI: 10.1177/0899764012444351M
    Palen, L., Vieweg, S., & Anderson, K. M. (2011). Supporting "everyday analysts" in safety- and time-critical situations. The Information Society, 27, 52-62. doi: 10.1080/01972243.2011.534370
    Ravishankar, G. (2011). Doing academic analytics right: Intelligent answers to simple questions. ECAR Research Bulletin 2. Retrieved from
    Teper, R., Segal, Z. V., & Inzlicht, M. (2013). Inside the mindful mind: How mindfulness enhances emotion regulation through improvements in executive control. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22(6), 449–454. DOI: 10.1177/0963721413495869
    NOTE: In this context, the concept of "executive control" refers to emotional regulation by individuals, not the status of an individual in an organization.
    Treem, J. W. (2013). Technology use as a status cue: The influence of mundane and novel technologies on knowledge assessments in organizations. Journal of Communication, 63(6), 1032-1053.
    Valkokari, K., Paasil, J., & Rantala, T. (2012). Managing knowledge within networked innovation. Knowledge Management Research & Practice, 10, 27–40.
    Wang, X., Butkiewicz, T., Dou, W., Bier, E. (2011). Designing knowledge-assisted visual analytics systems for organizational environments. VINCI 2011, August 4-5, 2011, Hong Kong, China. Retrieved from

WEEK 8: Big Data Analytics

M : These sessions introduces the concept of "Big Data." The term means many things, but whatever it means, it is the "hot" and latest "new" item on the agenda of people who work in fields (disciplines) and industries where large-scale, very large data sets and advanced data-intensive knowledge are required for what is called "business intelligence." A number of disciplines contribute, including statistics, computer science, complex systems and networks, information science, information systems, and domain-specific content knowledge. These professionals approach data differently, yet all are needed for successful (useful) analysis (new knowledge) to take place and to be used effectively. At this time (December 2013), a corpus of peer-reviewed journal literature is not yet available; as such, most of what we will read in this session has been written by private sector consultants and analysts. Nearly all the articles are a "fast-read." Please read them in the order in the list.

Required Readings:

    SAS. (2013). What is big data? Carey, NC: SAS International Institute for Advanced Analytics, Inc. Retrieved from
    Dhar, V. (2013). Data science and prediction. (2013). Communications of the ACM, 56(12), 64-73.
    NOTE: A must-read for understanding "Big Data" and what is "Data Science."
    Davenport, T. H., & Dyché, J. (2013). Big data in big companies. Carey, NC: SAS International Institute for Analytics, Inc. Retrieved from
    NOTE: This report provides a number of very short "case studies" that offer, at least minimally, some insights into how companies are using their data for decision making.
    Provost, F., & Fawcett, T. (2013). Data science and its relationship to big data and data-driven decision making. Big Data, 1(1), 51-59. Retrieved from
    McAfee, A., & Brynjolfsson, E. (2012). Big data: The management revolution. Harvard Business Review, 90(10), 60-68. Retrieved from
    Barton, D., & Court, D. (2012). Making advanced analytics work for you: A practical guide to capitalizing on big data. Harvard Business Review, 78-83.
    Narayanan, A., Greco, M., Powell, H., & Coleman, L. (2013). The reliability of big "patient satisfaction data." Big Data, 1(3), 141-151. Retrieved from doi: 10.1089/big.2013.0021
    Neff, G. (2013). Why big data won't cure us. Big Data, 1(3), 117-123. Retrieved from
    Boyd, d., Crawford, K. (2012). Critical questions for big data: Provocations for a cultural, technological, and scholarly phenomenon. Information, Communication & Society, 15(5), 662–679. doi: 10.1080/1369118X.2012.678878

W: This session explore will examine big data analytics in context using case analysis.

       Police Cases:
    Franzen, C. (2012, Nov 2). How big data fights crime FCW:The Business of Federal Technology. Retrieved from
    Risling, G. (2012, July 1). "Predictive policing" technology lowers crime in Los Angeles. Retrieved from
    Raytheon (2014). Raytheon: Driving bid dave evolution for local police Journal of Electronic Surveillance Technology. Retrieved from
    Mullich, J (2014). Better community Connections through big data and analytics Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved from
    Badger, E (2012). How to catach a criminal with data the Atlantic: CityLab. Retrieved from
       Education Cases:
    Parry, M. (2012, July 18). Big data on campus. New York Times. Retrieved from
    Fleicher, L. (2014). Big data enters the classroom: Technological advances and privacy concerns clash The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from
    Nelson, L. (2014). Big data 101: Colleges are hoping predictive anlaytics can fix their dismal graduation rates Retrieved from
    Stegon D. (2014). Montana turns to big data to improve eduation Retrieved from
    Shapiro, J.(2014). What's so bad about big data in little classrooms? Retrieved from
       UPS Cases:
    Zax, D. (n.d.). Brown down: UPS drrivers vs. the UPS algorithm. Retrieved from
    King, J. (2013, July 13). Data analytics: Eye-popping results from Intel, UPS, and Express Scripts. Computerworld.comem>. Retrieved from
    Varon, E. (2013, January 31). How UPS trains front-line workers to use predictive analytics. Retrieved from
    Wohlsen, M. (2013, June 13). The astronomical math behind UPS' new tool to deliver packages faster. Retrieved from
    Vanderbilt, T. (2013, July 18). Unhappy truckers and other algorithmic problems. Retrieved from
    Schlanenstein, M. (2013, October 30). UPS crunches data to make routes more efficient, save gas. Retrieved from
    Seward, C. (2013, December 16). UPS deliveries to peak on Tuesday. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved from[12/17/2013

Recommended Readings:

    Bolen, A. (2012, March 16). Optimizing assortments with big data. SAS blogs. Retrieved from
    Morse-Gagne, E. E. (2011, April 1). Culturomics: Statistical traps muddy the data. (Letters to the Editor). Science, 332, p. 35. Retrieved from htpp://
    Chen, H., Chiang, R. H. L., & Storey, V. C. (2012). Business intelligence and analytics: From big data to big impact. MIS Quarterly, 36(4), 1165-1188.
    IBM Institute for Business Value. (2013). Analytics: A blueprint for value: Converting big data and analytics insights into results. Somers, NY: IBM Global Services. Retrieved from
    Mason, B., Bafcher, G., Reynolds, & Fraser, H. (2013). Collaborating beyond traditional boundaries: What convergence means for our health care systems Washington, DC: AHIP Foundation's Institute for Health Systems Solutions. Retrieved from
    Lane, J., & Stodden, V. (2013). What? Me worry? What to do about privacy, big data, and statistical research. Communications of the ACM, 56(12), 14.
    Ansolabehere, S., & Hershy, E. (2012, October 12). Validation: What big data reveal about survey misreporting and the real electorate. Retrieved from
    Hill, S., Merchant, R., & Ungar, L. (2013). Lessons learned about public health from online crowd surveillance. Big Data, 1(3), 160-167. Retrieved from doi: 10.1089/big.2013.0020
    Bradley, P. S. (2013). Implications of big data analytics on population health management. Big Data, 1(3), 152-159. doi: 10.1089/big.2013.0019
    IBM Center for Applied Insights. (2013). Marketing science: From descriptive to prescriptive. Armonk, NY: IBM. Retrieved from
    SAS. (2013). Best practices in information management, reporting and analytics for education: 10 tips from SAS education customers for making the most of SAS® software and empowering users to drive action. SAS White Paper. Retrieved from
    Kirkpatrick, R. (2013). Big data for development. Big Data, 1(3), BD3-BD4. Retrieved from DOI: 10.1089/big.2012.1502
    Forbes Insights in association with TURN. (2013). The promise of privacy: Respecting consumers' limits while realizing the marketing benefits of big data. Retrieved from
    Forbes Insights in association with Rocketfuel. (2013). The big potential of big data: A field guide for CMOs. Retrieved from
    Peck, D. (2013, November 20). They're watching you at work. The Atlantic. Retrieved from
    Davenport, T. H., & Dyché, J. (2013). Big data in big companies. Carey, NC: SAS International Institute for Analytics, Inc. Retrieved from
    NOTE: This report provides a number of very short "case studies" that offer, at least minimally, some insights into how companies are using their data for decision making.
    Borkar, A. (2014). March 10). The ideal data science team. (Blog). analytic bridge. Data science central. Retrieved from
    New York Times. (2014, August 7). Time for debate: Is Big Data spreading inequality? New York Times. Retrieved from

WEEK 9: Organizational Culture

This begins the third part of this course focuses on the human and social aspects of organizations. Sessions are devoted to orgnizational culture (Session 8), leadership and managing (Session 9), how work is carried out (Session 11 & 12), health and medical informatics (Session 12 & 13), and the disruptive effects of technology and how innovation (Session 13 & 14) takes place. Organizational life is not without conflict, power struggles, and politics and differences need to be resolved. The workplace of the 21st century is both local and global and, thus, we need to understand how different cultures address the problematics of daily work in the organizational setting.

Management in all organizations preaches a primary goal of "innovation, else perish." But what are strategies for success, for responding to constant change and uncertainty, for achieving the "innovating organization"? Because the organization is the people in it and their relationships with one another, the critical element is investment in the members of the organization. Human energy and activity, commitment, and collaboration are required to use information and technology effectively, to share knowledge, and to engage in continuous learning. IT is shaped by the very people who create and use (or don't use) it: their work practices, the context in which the daily work is carried out, and the relationships among them.

M : The most general definition of "organizational culture" is a "set of collective understandings" or "cognitive interpretations or schemata" that are held by a group of people joined in common, productive purpose to accomplish the goals of the organization. The study of organizational culture can be conceptualized as an effort to understand socially-constructed meaning systems, usually forms of tacit knowledge. Thus organizations are shaped not only by their external environments but also by what happens inside their boundaries. And so, all the members of an organization, including leaders, managers, and staff, have to discover the traditions of the organization and to learn the routine ways of getting a job done and the rules governing appropriate behavior. This is no easy task, as these case studies show: the difficulties of achieving consensus, the inherent ambiguity of tasks and roles, and ongoing conflict. It should also be added that there is not just one culture inside an organization; and, moreover, globalization has led to organizations having to address issues of multiple cultures of and professional practice across countries. As such, understanding organizational culture requires confronting differences that usually carry with them the need to resolve problematic situations: addressing them is essential, no matter how discomforting it may be. As Galliers writes, culture must be "unpacked."

Some of the articles in this session were written many years ago. They represent classic analyses of organizational life that are timeless; they are not "old." They should be read and analyzed for their added value for understanding how to approach the analysis of organizational culture.

Required Readings:

    Choo, C. W., Furness, C., Paquette, S., van den Berg, H., Detlor, B., Bergeron, P., & Heaton, L. (2006). Working with information: Information management and culture in a professional services organization. Journal of Information Science, 32(6), 491-510. doi:10.1177/0165551506068159
    Galliers, R. D. (2003). Information systems in global organizations: Unpacking culture. In S. Krishna & S. Madon (Eds.), The digital challenge: Information technology in the development context (pp. 90-99). Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Ltd.
    Dafoulas, G., & Macaulay, L. (2001). Investigating cultural differences in virtual software teams. Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries, 7(4), 1-14. Retrieved from
    NOTE: A very useful article on how to conceptualize culture.
    Rao, V. S., & Ramachandran, S. (2011). Occupational cultures of information systems personnel and managerial personnel: Potential conflicts. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 29(12), 581-604.
    NOTE: Conflict is endemic to organizational life. This articlee discusses how the different roles perceive of what is relevant for carrying out work.

W: This session explore will examine organizational culture in context using case analysis.

    Manning, P. K. (1996). Information technology in the police context: The "sailor" phone. Information Systems Research, 7(1), 52-62. doi:10.1287/isre.7.1.52
    NOTE: Although written nearly two decades ago, this article offers a solid perspective of the meaning of "organizational informatics." Read this article before you continue with the other readings for this session. For more on Manning and police departments, see his recent book The Technology of Policing: Crime Mapping, Information Technology, and the Rationality of Crime Control. A book review is included in the session's readings on Oncourse.
    Harper, R. H. R. (1996). Why people do and do not wear active badges: A case study. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), 4, 297-318.
    NOTE: Excellent article that reinforces the concept of subcultures and occupational communities inside an organization.
    Weeks, J. R. (2001). Information technology in a culture of complaint: Derogation, deprecation, and the appropriation of organizational transformation. In J. Yates & J. Van Maanen (Eds.), Information technology and organizational transformation: History, rhetoric, and practice (pp. 155-178). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
    NOTE: You might enjoy reading Gary Fine's review essay [see second part] of the book Unpopular Culture from which this Weeks reading is drawn. The Fine review essay appeared in the October 2004 issue of Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 33(5), 638-644.

Supplemental Readings:

    Boyne, G. A., James, O., John, P., & Petrovsky, N. (2011). Top management turnover and organizational performance: A test of a contingency model. Public Administration Review, 71(4), 572-581.
    Cooke, F. L. (2006). Outsourcing of public services and implications for managerial knowledge and careers. Journal of Management Development, 25(3), 289-284.
    NOTE: We continue to experience the effects of outsourcing, although it has been a tool long employed by government agencies in the United States and elsewhere. More recently, we have begun to see an increasing number of organizations that are ending their contracts with outside firms and have returned the outsourced work to the employees in their ownn organization. Students who have an interest in working for government agencies may find jobs, not in government agencies but in companies that have received contracts for servicees from the government.
    Feldman, M. S. (1991). The meanings of ambiguity: Learning from stories and metaphors. In P. J. Frost, L. F. Moore, M. R. Louis, C. C. Lundberg, & J. Martin (Eds.), Reframing organizational culture (pp. 145-156). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
    NOTE: This article is the result of her study of government agencies. The article remains very relevant.
    Jennings, E. T. (2012). Public Administration Review, 72(S1), S93–S94. DOI: 10.111/j.1540-6210.2012.02636.x.
    NOTE: Although this "Commentary" is only two pages long, Jennings brings together the concepts of culture and performance behavior. He references the article that leads to his "Commentary" so that you can follow the details of his reaction.
    Marschall, D. (2002). Internet technologists as an occupational community: Ethnographic evidence. Information, Communication & Society, 5(1), 51-60. doi:10.1080/13691180110117659
    NOTE: This article introduces the concept of "sub-cultures" as "occupational communities." These programmers see themselves as apart from the rest of the organization, creating a community that provides their moral and intellectual sustenance. Important to understand is the role that the organization's CEO plays in socializing new entrants to the organization and the role of language and the metaphors that provide guidance in the socialization process.
    McDonald, P. (1991). The Los Angeles Olympic Organizing Committee: Developing organizational culture in the short run. In P. J. Frost, L. F. Moore, M. R. Louis, C. C. Lundberg, & J. Martin (Eds.), Reframing organizational culture (pp. 26-38). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
    NOTE: How to create a committed staff from the "get-go" is the core of this article: socialization when commmitment must be very quickly created.
    Meyerson, D. E. (1991). "Normal" ambiguity? A glimpse of an occupational culture. In P. J. Frost, L. F. Moore, M. R. Louis, C. C. Lundberg, & J. Martin (Eds.), Reframing organizational culture (pp. 131-144). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
    NOTE: Everyone in an organization does not share the same objectives. But often objectives are not clear. This is what takes place in the hospital social work setting. As Meyerson explains: "This chapter describes the occupational culture of hospital social work (Meyerson, 1989). Members share a common orientation—they work in organizations dominated by the medical profession—and they share a common purpose—to "help" people. Yet, in different contexts, to different audiences, or at different times, social workers vary in their beliefs about their medical orientation, how to "help," and even what it means to "help." In this way, cultures can embody ambiguities. Members may still share an overarching orientation and purpose, they may face similar problems and experiences, but how they interpret and enact these may vary so radically as to make what is shared seem vacuously abstract" (p. 1332).
    Vaughan, D. (2004). Organizational rituals of risk and error. In B. Hutter & M. Power (Eds.), Organizational encounters with risk (pp. 33-66). New York and Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from
    NOTE: Vaughan contributed a major analysis of the reasons for the Challenger disaster which remains as current as when she first conducted her research during the 1990s. She was later invited to serve on the presidential commission on the Columbia Disaster. The results of her study and the findings of the Commission were identifical, indicating few changes had taken place in the intervening years between the two disasters. (The book carries a publication date of December 2005, but her chapter, available at her web site, is dated 2004.)


No Class.

WEEK 11: Leadership & Managing

M : Leadership and management qualities have been studied for more than 70 years, probably closer to a century. Hundreds of books have been written to teach people how to become "inspirational leaders." Consultants earn substantial amounts of money teaching people how to manage. Why is it so hard to be a good leader and manager? How do you successfully "Walk the talk"?

More and more today, management is conducted "virtually." What contributes to successful virtual management? The Bourhis and Line Dube article address this question (see recommended readings below). Google spent millions of dollars investigating what contributes to being a good manager; this New York Times article tells the story. We also read a short article by Peter Senge, a well known guru and circuit speaker on what is needed to transform organizations. The recommended readings are also excellent. There you will find short articles by two important gurus of management, Schein and Mintzberg. Also in the supplemental bibliography is another excellent but dense article by Owen-Smith, about leadership in a scientific laboratory at a major university. You will find additional short, mostly newspaper, articles about successful managing in Resources/New Items (Interesting)/Management, Managing, and Leadership folder. The series of Mintzberg articles that discuss empirical cases of organizational behavior of managers are useful for Assignment #2.

Required Readings:

    Hill, L. A., Brandeau, G., Truelove, E., & Lineback, K. (2014, June). Collective genius. Harvard Business Review, 1-10.
    Google. (2011). Google rules: Eight good behaviors and three pitfalls of managers. Retrieved from
    Senge, P. (1996, February). Rethinking leadership in the learning organization. The Systems Thinker, 7(1). Retrieved from
    Moynihan, D. P., & Hawes, D. P. (2012). Responsiveness to reform values: The influence of the environment on performance information use. Public Administration Review, 72(s1), Special Issue, S95-S105.
    NOTE: This article brings together the concepts of the environment, use of information, networking with stakeholders, and the attributes of leadership. The focus is on what makes successful school superintendents, but the concepts and arguments made by the authors illustrate how relevant this article is for understanding the context of managerial decision making. Mintzberg's articles in the recommended section below are very well coupled with this article. HINT: nice way to do Assignment 2.1.
    O'Leary, R., Choi, Y., & Gerard, C. M. (2012). The skill set of the successful collaborator. Public Administration Review, 72(s1), Special Issue, S70-S83.
    NOTE: Members of the U.S. Senior Executive Service choose collaboration as the most important management strategy. This article reinforces the Senge article and also anticipates the next section on the World of Work. This is another good article to use for Assignment 2.1 or 2.2. because, among other reasons, it brings together a number of ideas about management and successful work practices.

W: This session explore will examine leadership and managing in context using case analysis.

Required Readings:

    Singer, N. (2011, March 26). What would Estée do? New York Times. retrieved from
    Heracleous, l., & Klaering, L. A. (2014). Charismatic leadership and rhetorical competence: An analysis of Steve Jobs's rhetoric. Group & Organization Management, 39(2), 131-161. DOI: 10.1177/1059601114525436

Recommended Readings:

    Armstrong, C. P., & Sambamurthy, V. (1999). Information technology assimilation in firms: The influence of senior leadership and IT. Information Systems Research, 10(4), 304-328. doi:10.1287/isre.10.4.304
    Bourhis, A., & Line Dube, L. (2010). "Structuring spontaneity": Investigating the impact of management practices on the success of virtual communities of practice. Journal of Information Science, 36, 175-193. doi:10.1177/0165551509357861
    Daft, R. L., Lengel, R. H., & Trevino, L. K. (1987). Message equivocality, media selection, and manager performance: Implications for information systems. MIS Quarterly, 11(3), 354-366.
    NOTE: This is the classic article on the relationship between media richness, organizational communication, and the development of information systems with great relevance for management.
    Mintzberg, H. (1987). Crafting strategy. Harvard Business Review, 65(4), 66-75.
    Mintzberg, H. (1997). Managing on the edges. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 10(3), 131-153. doi:10.1108/09513559710166020
    Mintzberg, H. (1998). Covert leadership: Notes on managing professionals. Harvard Business Review, 76(6), 140-147.
    Mintzberg, H. (2001). The yin and the yang of managing. Organizational Dynamics, 29(4), 306-312. doi:10.1016/S0090-2616(01)00035-3
    Mintzberg, H., & Westley, F. (2001). Decision making: It's not what you think. MIT Sloan Management Review, 42(3), 89-93.
    Schein, E. H. (1991). The role of the founder in the creation of organizational culture. In P. J. Frost, L. F. Moore, M. R. Louis, C. C. Lundberg, & J. Martin (Eds.), Reframing organizational culture (pp. 14-25). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
    Treem, J. W. (2012). Communicating expertise: Knowledge performances in professional-service firms. Communication Monographs, 79(1), 23-47.
    von Krogh, G., Nonaka, I., & Rechsteiner, L. (2012). Leadership in organizational knowledge creation: A review and framework. Journal of Management Studies, 49(1), 240-272. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6486.2010.00978.x
    NOTE: An important article for understanding "situational leadership." In other words: Context counts! Excerpted from the abstract: "Organizational knowledge creation integrates context, knowledge assets, and knowledge creation processes throughout the organization. Using organizational knowledge creation theory as an organizing framework, we conduct a literature review that shows prior work has focused on the role of central, upper-echelon, leadership in knowledge creation processes, without devoting much attention to context and knowledge assets."

WEEK 12: Health/Medical Informatics

M: An Introduction to Health and Medical Informatics Issues. The demographics of nations in all corners of the world describe the growth of both the aged and youth populations with concomitant increasing costs. Implementing information technology, it has been argued, can/will reduce these costs. Introducing IT has been taking place for decades. So, it is worthwhile asking, among the many questions that can be raised: Has IT succeeded in bringing better information to both health professionals and patients, has patient care improved, and have costs of medical care been lowered? Have medical errors decreased? Can IT reduce costs and improve quality care? What are the effects and consequences of increasing use of devices? What do we need to understand about IT in health care and medicine? This session introduces some of the very many issues that confront the health care and medical professions and their patients (us!). The literature is burgeoning, making selection decisions quite difficult for this session.

NOTE: Assignment #3 provides a rich source of additional empirical examples, specifically on medical errors and implementation of the Affordable Health Act (ACA), that are available to you. See also the Oncourse subfolder of the "Interesting Articles" folder for more on medical and health informatics. The concept of "mindfulness" is reintroduced (see Recommended readings below).

Required Readings:

    Carayon, P., Smith, P., Hundt, A. S., Kuruchittham, V., & Li, Q. (2009). Implementation of an electronic health records system in a small clinic: The viewpoint of clinic staff. Behaviour & Information Technology, 28(1), 5-20. doi:10.1080/01449290701628178
    Fitzgerald, G., & Russo, N. L. (2005). The turnaround of the London ambulance service computer-aided dispatch system (LASCAD). European Journal of Information Systems, 14, 244-257. doi:10.1057/palgrave.ejis.3000541
    Soderholm, H. M., & Sonnenwald, D. (2010). Visioning future emergency healthcare collaboration: Perspectives from large and small medical centers. Journal of the American Society for Information Science & Technology, 61(9), 1808-1823. doi:10.1002/asi.21365
    NOTE: An outstanding article, not an empirical study but a simulation, for understanding the introduction of new technology into organnizations and how context makes a difference in socio-technical systems. Also a good theoretical framework for examining change in organizations.

W: Three case studies investigate unanticipated consequences following the introduction of IT health and medical systems in three different settings. They point to flaws in the design of systems that remain all too prevalent in the second decade of the 21st century!

    Saleem, J. J., Russ, A. L., Justice, C. F., Hagg, H., Ebright, P. R., Woodbridge, P. A., & Doebbeling, B. N. (2009). Exploring the persistence of paper with the electronic health record. International Journal of Medical Informatics, 78, 618-628. doi:10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2009.04.001
    Samuelsson T., & Berner, B. (2013). Swift transport versus information gathering: Telemedicine and new tensions in the ambulance service. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 42, 722-744. DOI: 10.1177/0891241613488941
    NOTE: Conflict is, as noted earlier, is endemic to organizational life.
    MacIntosh-Murray, A., & Choo, C. W. (2005). Information behavior in the context of improving patient safety. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 56(12), 1332-1345. doi:10.1002/asi.20228
    NOTE: An outstanding analysis of the complexity of the work life and practices and why a change agent brought into the hospital by administration does not have much success in encouraging changes in nursing behavior. The analysis is also very useful for understanding the hospital as a complex system and the role that the environment plays in contributing to changes in work life.

Supplemental Readings:

    Beach, M. C., Roter, D., Korthuis, P. T., Epstein, R. M., Sharp, V., Rataawongsa, N. et al. (2013). A multicenter study of physician mindfulness and health care quality. Annals of Family Medicine, 11(5), 421-428.
    NOTE: This article reintroduces the concept of "mindfulness" that was introduced in our first and subsequent sessions. Its relationship to communication reinforces the resulting higher quality care perceived by the patient. See the Fortney et al. study in the "Recommended" articles.
    Rittel, M. (2011, December 15). As doctors use more devices, potential for distraction grows. New York Times. Retrieved from
    Weber G. R. (2014). Viewpoint: Finding the missing link for big biomedical data. Journal of the American Medical Association, 311(24), 2479-2480.
    Shachak, A., Montgomery, C., Dow, R., Barnsley, J., Tu, K., Jadad, A. et al. (2013). End-user support for primary care electronic medical records: A qualitative case study of users' needs, expectations, and realities. Health Systems, 2, 198–212.
    Barnett, T., & Sorenson, C. (2011). Infectious disease surveillance in the United States and the United Kingdom: From public goods to the challenges of new technologies. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 36(1), 165-185. DOI 10.1215/03616878-1191144
    Carroll, M. et al. (2010). Innovation networks for improving access and quality across the healthcare ecosystem. National Center for Research Resources Conference-Future of Telehealth: Essential Tools and Technologies for Clinical Research and Care. Telemedicine and e-Health, 16(1), 107-111. Retrieved from
    Ellingsen, G., Monteiro, E., & Munkvold, G. (2007). Standardization of work: Co-constructed practice. The Information Society, 23(5), 309-326.
    NOTE: A very useful and sensitive study of the introduction of standardization of practice, this in the nursing profession. This article brings us "full circle" to the rationale for the course, as described in session one: that there are unintended consequences and socio-cognitive-affective aspects that must be taken account of. The excerpt from the abstract is informative: "Nursing provides a graphic illustration of the dilemmas involved in the standardization of service work. In nursing, standardization is commonly a feature of projects to improve both efficiency and quality in health care. In contrast to the dominant conception of standardization as a largely top-down, imposed process, we offer a view of standardization as incomplete, co-constructed with users, and with significant unintended consequences. The article contributes by (a) developing a theoretical perspective for the standardization of information-system-embedded service work and (2) providing operational and practical implications for system design and health care management."
    Feldman, S. S., & Horan, T. A. (2011). The dynamics of information collaboration: A case study of blended IT value propositions for health information exchange in disability determination. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 12(2/3) (Special Issue), 189-207.
    Fortney, L., Luchterhand, C., Zakletaskaia, L, Zgierska, A., & Rakel, D. (2013). Abbreviated mindfulness intervention for job satisfaction, quality of life, and compassion in primary care clinicians: A pilot study. Annals of Family Medicine, 11(5), 412-420.
    Ghosh, B., & Scott J. E. Antecedents and catalysts for developing a healthcare analytic capability. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 29 (Article 22), 395-410.
    NOTE: Earlier in the semester we had a discussion about "analytics." This article is a case study of the use of analytics in a Veterans Health Administration hospital.
    Gawande, A. (2011).The Hot Spotters: Can we lower medical costs by giving the neediest patients better care? The New Yorker, January 24. Retrieved from
    Haynes, A. B. et al. (2009). A surgical safety checklist to reduce morbidity and mortality in a global population. The New England Journal of Medicine, 360(5), 491-499.
    Kelley, H., Chiasson, M., Downey, A., & Pacaud, D. (2011). The clinical impact of eHealth on the self-management of diabetes: A double adoption perspective. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 12(2/3) (Special Issue), 208-234.
    Krasner, M. S., Epstein, R. M., Beckman, H., Suchman, A. L., Chapman, B., Mooney, C. J. et al. (2009). Association of an educational program in mindful communication with burnout, empathy, and attitudes among primary care physicians. Journal of the American Medical Association, 302(12), 1284-1293.
    Palen, L., Vieweq, S., & Anderson, K. M. (2011). Perspective: Supporting "everyday analysts" in safety-and time-critical situations. The Information Society, 27, 52–62. DOI: 10.1080/01972243.2011.534370
    Palvia, P., Lowe, K., Nemati, H., & Jacks, T. (2012). Information technology issues in healthcare: Hospital CEO and CIO perspectives. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 30(5), 293-312.
    Paul, R. J., Ezz, I., & Kuljis, J. (2012). Healthcare information systems: A patient-user perspective. Health Systems, 1, 85–95.
    Payton, F. C., Pare, G., LeRouge, C., & Reddy, M. (2011). Health care IT: Process, people, patients and interdisciplinary considerations. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 12(2/3) (Special Issue), i-xiii.
    Rivard, S., Lapointe, L., & Kappos, A. (2011). An organizational culture-based theory of clinical information systems implementation in hospitals. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 12(2/3) (Special Issue), 123-162.
    NOTE: This is a particularly rich but difficult study. It applies the three perspectives on organizational culture that were introduced in the session earlier in the semester to two case studies of hospitals that introduce health information systems. It is worth taking the time to read the article because it helps understand why multiple theoretical perspectives are needed to understand the complexity of the empirical world.

To dig into the Affordable Care Act (ACA), also known as "ObamaCare": high quality analyses of health care in the United States and globally can be found at the National Academies Press: Assignment #3 provides an opportunity to analyze the unanticipated consequences of the roll-out of A large number of documents have been archived in this Assignment folder.

WEEK 13: World of Work

M: How are shared understandings communicated? How do members of organizations learn about and understand their roles and "their portion of organizational knowledge and to use this knowledge" to "facilitate the reproduction of organizational routines and competencies" (Aldrich, 1999, p. 140)? Learning occurs not just by reading manuals, documentation, or policy manuals - codified knowledge, but more often through practice, the carrying out of the daily work and collaborating with others when problems arise - the construction of a community.

Most of the work we do requires expertise and cooperation, coordination, and communication with others (Galegher, Kraut, & Egido, 1990, p. xiii). But this kind of work is hard to do. The information content is complex and workers rely on multiple technologies to get their project completed. Work is often interrupted. Sometimes technologies do not operate efficiently or effectively. This week's session focuses on people interacting with others and the complexity of their activities. What contributes to success? To failure? To on-the-job difficulties with project completion? To what extent are communication and information the essence of the work done by these information professionals? How does technology help or impede a job well done?

We could devote not just there class sessions but an entire semester to the study of work practices. The literature is enormously rich and it makes selection difficult.

Required Readings:

    Ehrlich, K., & Cash, D. (1999). The invisible world of intermediaries: A cautionary tale. Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 8, 147-167. doi:10.1023/A:1008696415354
    Forsythe, D. (1993). The construction of work in artificial intelligence. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 18(4), 460-479. doi:10.1177/016224399301800404
    Nunamaker Jr., J. F., Reinig, B. A., & Briggs, R. O. (2009). Principles for effective virtual teamwork. Communications of the ACM, 52(4), 113-117. doi:10.1145/1498765.1498797
    Chesley, N. (2014). Information and communication technology use, work intensification and employee strain and distress. Work, Employment, & Society, 28(4), 589-610. DOI: 10.1177/0950017013500112
    Bucher, E., Fieseler, C., & Suphan, A. (2013). The stress potential of social media in the workplace. Information, Communication & Society, 16(10), 1639–1667.

W: This session explore will examine the world of work in context using case analysis.

    Grampp, C. M., McGrath, P., & Houlihan, M. (2003). The technological strangulation of non-canonical communities of practice: The impact of GPS in a Dublin taxi firm. Paper presented at the 5th international conference on "Organization Learning and Knowledge," Lancaster, England.
    Pennathur, P. R., Bisantz, A. M., Fairbanks, R. J., Perry, S. J., Zwemer, F., & Wears, R. L. (2007). Assessing the impact of computerization on work practice: Information technology in emergency departments. Paper presented at the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 51st Annual Meeting, Baltimore, MD, October 2007.
    Neff, G., Fieore-Silfvast, B., & Dossick, C. S. (2010). A case study of the failure of digital communication to cross knowledge boundaries in virtual construction. Information, Communication & Society, 13(4), 556-573. doi:10.1080/13691181003645970

Supplemental Readings:

    Zamani, E. D., Giaglis, G. M., & Athanasia Pouloudi. (2013). A sensemaking approach to tablet users' accomodating practices. Proceedings of the 34th International Conference on Information Systems, Milan 2013. Retrieved from
    Lohr, S. (2014, June 21). Unblinking eyes track employees. New York Times. Retrieved from
    NOTE: See also comments that followed the reading of this article.
    Agostini, A., Albolino, S., De Paoli, F., Grasso, A., & Hinrichs, E. (2005). Supporting communities by providing multiple views. In P. Van Den Besselaar, G. De Michelis, J. Preece, & C. Simone (Eds.), Communities and technologies 2005. (pp. 437-456). doi: 10.1007/1-4020-3591-8_23
    Craig, C. A., Allen, M. W., Reid, M. F., Riemenschneider, C. K., & Armstrong, D. J. (2012). The impact of career mentoring and psychosocial mentoring on affective organizational commitment, job involvement, and turnover intention. Administration & Society, 45(8), 949–973.
    Forsythe, D. (1992). Blaming the user in medical informatics. Knowledge and Society: The Anthropology of Science and Technology, 9, 91-111.
    Goggins, S. P., Laffey, J., & Tsai, I-C. (2007). Cooperation and groupness: Community formation in small online collaborative groups. Proceedings of the 2007 International ACM Conference on Supporting Group Work, GROUP '07 (pp. 207-216). New York: Association of Computing Machinery. doi:10.1145/1316624.1316654
    Husebao, S. E., Rystedt, H., & Friberg, F. (2011). Educating for teamwork: Nursing students' coordination in simulated cardiac arrest situations. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 67(10), 2239-2255. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2011.05629.x
    Neff, G., Fieore-Silfvast, B., & Dossick, C. S. (2010). A case study of the failure of digital communication to cross knowledge boundaries in virtual construction. Information, Communication & Society, 13(4), 556-573. doi:10.1080/13691181003645970
    Janicik, G. A., & Bartel, C. A. (2003). Talking about time: Effects of temporal planning and time awareness norms on group coordination and performance. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 7(2), 122-134.
    Madden, M., & Jones, S. (2008, September). Networked workers. Pew Internet and American Life. Retrieved from
    McGrath, J. E. (1991). Time, interaction, and performance (TIP): A theory of groups. Small Group Research, 22(2), 147-174.
    NOTE: McGrath is one of the leading authorities on small groups. He is also one of the few who carefully considers the role of time.
    Orr, J. (1990). Sharing knowledge, celebrating identity: War stories and community memory in a service culture. In D.S. Middleton & D. Edwards (Eds.), Collective remembering (pp. 169-189). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
    Ortiz de Guinea, A., & Webster, J. (2013). An investigation of information systems use patterns: Technological events as triggers, the effect of time, and consequences for performance. MIS Quarterly,37(4), 1165-1188.
    Rivard, S., & Lapointe, L. (2012). Information technology implementers' responses to user resistance: Nature and effects. MIS Quarterly, 36(3), 897-920.
    Robert, L. P., Dennis, A. R., & Ahuja, M. K. (2008). Social capital and knowledge integration in digitally enabled teams. Information Systems Research, 19(3), 314-334. doi:10.1287/isre.1080.0177
    Su, C. (2012). Who knows who knows what in the group? The effects of communication network centralities, use of digital knowledge repositories, and work remoteness on organizational members' accuracy in expertise recognition. Communication Research, 39(6), 614-640.
    NOTE: A long and dense article but one that brings together social networks, social media, distributed communication, and knowledge of who is an expert.
    Sun, H. (2013). A longitudinal study of herd behavior in the adoption and continued use of technology. MIS Quarterly, 37(4), 1013-1041.
    Tuckman, B. W. (1963). Developmental sequence in small groups. Psychological Bulletin, 63(6), 384-399.
    Tuckman, B. W., & Jensen, M.A. C. (1977). Stages of small-group development revisited. Group & Organization Management, 2(4), 419-427.
    NOTE: Tuckman's studies on small groups have made a fundamental contribution to our understandings of social practice.
    Wenger, E. C., & Snyder, W. M. (2000). Communities of practice. Harvard Business Review, 78(1), 139-145.
    NOTE: One of the classic articles that introduced the concept of "communities of practice."
    Zhang, W., & Watts, S. A. (2008). Capitalizing on content information adoption in two online communities. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 9(2), Article 3.
    Zhang, X., & Venkatesh, V. (2013). Explaining employee job performance: The role of online and offline workplace communication networks. MIS Quarterly, 37(3), 695-722.

WEEK 14: Distruptive Technologies & Innovation

M: Transformation and innovation are today's buzzwords. Among the favorite expressions is "disruptive technology." We end the semester by examining how the term originated, what it means, and some examples of organizations that are addressing the effects of "disruptive technology" (or at least worrying about it) in a series of short articles, essays, or think pieces. The case studies in the recommended reading literature examine the reasons for organizational success and failure. We need to ask ourselves what contributed to the outcome(s). What made possible success or failure? Can we ever ensure or predict successful outcomes from the introduction of innovation into organizations? Organizational innovation may come about because of widespread restructuring, through creative ways to modify or restructure internal processes and/or structures, or by new initiatives (Fenton and Pettigrew in Pettigrew & Fenton, 2000, p. 3).

NOTE that Assignment 3 offers students the opportunity to study an organization/institution that has encountered and had to analyze the effects of disruptive technology. The theoretical framework of "disruptive technologies" is introduced with the articles by Bower and Christensen (1995) and Christensen (1997). The remaining articles examine the contexts of academic libraries, public libraries, higher education, and government. All these articles are very short reads.

The recommended readings provide a variety of case studies of success and failure following the introduction of technological innovation.

Required Readings:

    Bower, J. L., & Christensen, C. M. (1995). Disruptive technologies: Catching the wave. Harvard Business Review, 73(1), 43-53.
    NOTE: Seventeen years old but still "truth to power." Christensen has been highly influential in all types of organizations and in all sectors, including libraries and other types of information centers.
    Christensen, C. M. (1997). Introduction. The innovator's dilemma: When new technologies cause great firms to fail. Retrieved from
    NOTE: This is the entire book (a free download version). All chapters are important; however, the introduction frames the problematic and describes what his studies have concluded. If "disruptive technologies and innovation" is chosen for Assignment #3, be sure to examine the other book chapters.
    Lepore, J. (2014). The disruption machine. The New Yorker, June 23. Retrieved from
    NOTE: This is a critical analysis of Christensen's concept of "disruptive technology." Her article elicited several letters to the editor in subsequent issues of The New Yorker. See "Letters from our readers." Retrieved fr
    Yu, D., & Hang, C. C. (2010). A reflective review of disruptive technology. International Journal of Management Reviews, 12(4), 435-452.

W: This session explore will examine the disruptive technology and innovation in the context of three sectors, education, libraries, and government using articl analysis.

Required Readings:

    King, W. J., & Nanfito. (2012, 11 December 2012). To MOOC or not to MOOC. Essay on the challenges posed by MOOCs to liberal arts colleges. Retrieved from
    NOTE: Important issues are raised by this thoughtful essay.
    Meyer, K. A. (2010). The role of disruptive technology in higher education. EDUCAUSE Quarterly. Retrieved from
    LaRue, J. (2012). The last one standing. Public Libraries, 51(1), 28-32.
    Lewis, D. W. (2004). The innovator's dilemma: Disruptive change and academic libraries. Library Administration & Management, 18(2), 68-74.
    Chun, S. A., Shulman, S., Sandoval, R., & Hovy, E. (2010). Government 2.0: Making connections between citizens, data and government. Information Policy, 15, 1-9.
    Wigand, F.D.L. (2011). Gov 2.0 and beyond: Using social media for transparency, participation, and collaboration. In S. Fong (Ed.) Networked Digital Technolgies: Third International Conference, NDT 2011, Macau, China, July 11-13, 2011. Proceedings (pp.307-318). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Supplemental Readings

     Introduction to the Concept of Disruptive Change::
    Useem, G. (2014, May 31). Business school, disrupted. New York Times. Retrieved from
    Jaskyte, K. (2011). Predictors of administrative and technological innovations in nonprofit organizations. Public Administration Review, 77(1), 77-86.
    NOTE: Christensen's ideas, which were focused on the for-profit sector (see all his examples), have been taken up by people who have tried to apply them to other sectors of the economy (as indicated in the selections below). This article focuses on the non-profit sector; however, what makes the article useful is that the author addresses two types of innovation: administrative and technological. You can't do one without the other, as Christensen argues in his recommendations, along with Poltrock and Grudin and others who examined the effects of organizational structure (session at the beginning of the semester).
    Sundararajan, A. (2014, May 6). Time to adapt to a new economy. New York Times. Retrieved from
    Carlo, J. L., Lyytinen, K., & Rose, G. M. (2011). Internet computing as a disruptive information technology innovation: The role of strong order effects. Information Systems Journal, 21, 91-122. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2575.2009.00345.x
    Edwards, P. N., Bowker, G. C., Jackson, S., & Williams, R. (2009). Introduction: An agenda for infrastructure studies. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 10(Special Issue), 364-374.
    NOTE: This article may be a good place to begin a literature search for Assignment 3. The articles in this special issue are summarized by Edwards et al. and are especially insightful and worth reading.
    Carr, N. D. (2003). Why IT doesn't matter anymore. Harvard Business Review, 81(5), 41-49.
    NOTE: This was a provocative piece when it first appeared and continues to be referenced.
    Carr, N. D. (2005). The end of corporate computing. MIT Sloan Management Review, 46(3), 67-73.
    NOTE: Although written in what may seem to be a "lifetime ago," there is much here that continues to be relevant.
     Introducing Innovation into Organizations::
    Christensen, C. M., & van Bever, D. (2014). The capitalists' dilemma. Harvard Business Review, June. Retrieved from
    Nelson, B. (2014, June 180. Megatrends in MOOCs: #13 MOOCs as relationship builders. Global Markets Academy. Retrieved from
    NOTE: The focus of this article is on the corporate setting. This is one of a series of articles on MOOCs that can be retrieved from this site.
    Bergeron, D. A. (2013, December). A path forward. Game-changing reforms in higher education and the implications for business and financing models. Center for American Progress. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress. Retrieved from
    Davidson, E. J., & Chismar, W. G. (2007). The interaction of institutionally triggered and technology-triggered social structure change: An investigation of computerized physician order entry. MIS Quarterly, 31(4), 739-758.
    Frahm, J., & Brown, K. (2006). Developing communicative competencies for a learning organization. Journal of Management Development, 25(3), 201-212.
    Handzic, M. (2011). Integrated socio-technical knowledge management model: An empirical evaluation. Journal of Knowledge Management, 15(2), 198-211.
    Heeks, R. (2002). Information systems and developing countries: Failure, success, and local improvisations. The Information Society, 18(2), 101-112. doi:10.1080/01972240290075039
    NOTE: This is an important article, especially for understanding the problems of "importing" information systems into different cultures. Heeks has been one of the leading researchers and practitioners who study information systems and development.
    Kleis, L., Chwelos, P., Ramirez, R. V., & Cockburn, I. (2012). Information technology and intangible output: The impact of IT investment on innovation productivity. Information Systems Research, 23(1), 42-59.
    Linden, G., Dedrick, J., & Kraemer, K. L. (2011). Innovation and job creation in a global economy: The case of Apple's iPod. Journal of International Commerce and Economics, 3(1), 223-240. Retrieved from<
    NOTE: See also "How the iPod Explains Globalization" by C. Freeland in the New York Times, June 30, 2011, article at:
    Obstfeld, D. (2005). Social networks, the tertius lungens orientation, and involvement in innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 50, 100-130.
    Ruigrok, W., Achtenhagen, L., Rüegg-Stürm, & Wagner, M. (2000). Hilti AG: Shared leadership and the rise of the communicating organization. In A. M. Pettigrew & E. M. Fenton (Eds.), The innovating organization (pp. 178-207). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
    Winklhofer, H. (2001). Organizational change as a contributing factor to IS failure. Proceedings of the 34th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. Maui, Hawaii: IEEE Computer Society Press. doi:10.1109/HICSS.2001.927159
     Disruptive Change in the University::
    NOTE: You will find many more articles in the "MOOCS, Online Teaching, and Competency Learning" in the folder for Assignment #3. You are welcome to choose other articles for this section of the session. But do read a few; they are all very short and mostly media articles.
    Carlson, S., & Blumenstyk. (2012, December 21). The false promise of the education revolution. (For whom is college being reinvented?) Chronicle of Higher Education, LIX(17), pp. A1, A4-A5. Retrieved from
    NOTE: This is an important critique that is a "must-read."
    Christensen, C. M., & Horn, M. B. (2013, November 1). Innovation imperative: Change everything. New York Times. Retrieved from
    Hoffman, R. (2013, September 16). Disrupting the diploma. Linked In. Retrieved from
    Maeda, J. (2013, October 25). Disrupting the diploma: A college president's view of the future. Linked In. Retrieved from
    Oblinger, D. G. (2012). IT as a game changer. EDUCAUSE Quarterly. Retrieved from
    Strawn, G. (2006). Leadership: You ain't seen nothin' yet. EDUCAUSE Review, 14, July/August, 8-9. Retrieved from
    Shirky, C. (2012, December 11). Napster, Udacity, and the academy [web log message]. retrieved from
    NOTE: Another thoughtful essay. Shirky is a very important analyst of social media and social change.
    Bady, A. (2012, December 6). Questioning Clay Shirky [online forum comment]. Retrieved from
    NOTE: After reading Shirky's essay, read this critique by Bady.
     Disruptive Change and Libraries::
    Lafferty, S., & Edwards, J. (2004). Disruptive technologies: What future universities and their libraries? Library Management, 25(6-7), 252-258.
    Lewis, D. W. (2013). From stacks to the web: The transformation of academic library collecting. College and Research Libraries, 74(2), 159-175.
    Sendze, M. (2012). The e-book experiment. Public Libraries, 51(1), 34-37.
    Shaw, J. (2010). Harvard's libraries deal with disruptive change. Harvard Magazine (May-June), 36-41, 82-83.
    Block, C. (2012). If books are our brand... Public Libraries, 51(1), 8-10.
    Dahl, C. (2012). Primed for patron-driven acquisition: A look at the big picture. Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship, 24, 119-126.
    Greenwalt, R. T. (2012). Developing an e-book strategy. Public Libraries, 51(1), 22-24.
    Lewis, D. W. (2007). A strategy for academic libraries in the first quarter of the 21st century. College & Research Libraries, 68(5)68(5), 418-434.
    Sandler, M. (2005). Disruptive beneficence: The Google print program and the future of libraries. Internet Reference Services Quarterly. 10(3-4), 5-22.
    How can bookstores stay alive? Room for debate. (2014, March 26). New York Times. Retrieved from
     Innovations in Technology::
    O'Connor, A. (2014, 1 June). Google glass enters the operating room. New York Times. Retrieved from

WEEK 15: IT Development

One topic that we return to throughout the semester is how information technology and communication are situated in a global setting. We end the semester with two sessions on information technology and the application of ICTs in development. Two of the continuing threads in the ICT for Development (ICT4D) literature concern the mismatch between Western-designed IT systems and the local culture and the application of digital media and ICT in the local culture. This work has been directed to designing and implementing information systems and ICT in e-government. Other work has investigated the introduction of information technology and social media into daily life and considerable work has also been devoted to analyzing the "haves-and-have-nots" that has carried the name "digital divide."

M : This session introduces some of the fundamental concerns of scholars and practitioners whose work has evaluated the implementation of information systems in non-Western nation settings. We begin with the policy issues that frame the questions we need to ask about how ICTs and, more generally, information systems, should be employed and their contribution to development. Richard Heeks has been a central figure in the study and practice of ICT4D, so we begin by tracing a discussion of his assessments between 2002 and 2014.

Required Readings:

    Heeks, R. (2002). Information systems and developing countries: Failure, success, and local improvisations. The Information Society, 18,101–112. DOI: 10.1080/0197224029007503 9
    NOTE: This article, written more than 12 years ago, remains one of the most heavily cited articles in the literature on information systems and development. The argument that Heeks makes continues to be relevant.
    Heeks, R. (2010). Do information and communication technologies (ICTs) contribute to development? Journal of International Development, 22, 625-640. DOI: 10.1002/jid.1716
    Heeks, R. (2014). ICT4D 2016: New priorities for ICT4D policy, Practice and WSIS in a post 2015 world. (Working Paper 59). Manchester, England: Centre for Development Informatics, University of Manchester. Retrieved from
    NOTE: This paper identifies a set of post-2015 priorities in international development which have to date been under-emphasized within ICT4D and discusses ICT4D's future structure, process, and vision.
    Armenta, A., Serranob, A., Cabrerac, M., & Conte, R. (2012). The new digital divide: The confluence of broadband penetration, sustainable development, technology adoption and community participation. Information Technology for Development, 18(4), 345–353. DOI: /10.1080/02681102.2011.625925
    NOTE: The "digital divide" has been a continuing theme of development scholars and practitioners, non-governmental organizations, and international organizations.

Recommended Readings:

    Heeks, R. (2002). E-Government in Africa: Promise and practice. Information Polity, 7, 97–114.
    NOTE: This article by Heeks continues to be one of the most heavily cited in the development literature.
    Heeks, R. (2012). Information technology and Gross National Happiness: Connecting digital technologies and happiness. Communications of the ACM, 55(4), 24-26.
    Suchman, L. A. (2002). Practice-based design of information systems: Notes form the hyperdeveloped world. The Information Society, 18(2), 139-144. DOI: 10.1080/01972240290075066
    NOTE: Suchman's article continues Heeks's discussion about "importing" information systems that have been designed by Western nations. It is a quite lovely article.
    Courtright, C. (2004). Which lessons are learned? Best practices and World Bank rural telecommunications policy. The Information Society, 20, 346-356. DOI: 10.1080/01972240490507983
    NOTE: Courtright is a former ILS student who spent a number of years in Central America, working on ICT projects, among them the development of Tele-centers. She analyzes World Bank policies and consequences of those policies.
    Qureshi, S. (2012). As the global digital divide narrows, who is being left behind. Information Technology for Development, 18(4), 277-280. DOI: 10.1080/02681102.2012.730656

W : This session introduces a few of the very many case studies in development that have been carried out in several regions of the world. The list is long, so choose at least several that interest you.

Required Readings:

    Chavula, H. K. (2013). Telecommunications development and economic growth in Africa. Information Technology for Development, 19(1), 5–23. DOI: 10.1080/02681102.2012.694794,
    Porter, G., Hampshire, K., Abane, A., Munthali, A., Robson, E., Mashiri, M., & Tanle, A. (2012). Youth, mobility and mobile phones in Africa: Findings from a three-country study. Information Technology for Development, 18(2), 145-162. DOI: 10.1080/02681102.2011.643210
    Ewusi-Mensah, K. (2012). Problems of information technology diffusion in sub-Saharan Africa: The case of Ghana. Information Technology for Development, 18(3), 247-269. DOI: 10.1080/02681102.2012.664113
    Blumenstock, J. E. (2012). Inferring patterns of internal migration from mobile phone all records: Evidence from Rwanda. Information Technology for Development, 18(2), 107-125. DOI: 10.1080/02681102.2011.643209
    Sein, M. K., & Furuholt, B. (2012). Intermediaries across the digital divide. Information Technology for Development, 18(4), 332-344. DOI: 10.1080/02681102.2012.667754
    Blattman, C., Jensen, R., & Roman, R. Assessing the need and potential of community networking for development in rural India. (Special issue: ICTs and community networking). The Information Society, 19(5), 349-364. DOI: 10.1080/714044683
    Rangaswamya, N., & Nair, S. (2012). The PC in an Indian urban slum: Enterprise and entrepreneurship in ICT4D 2.0. Information Technology for Development, 18(2), 163–180.
    Mo, D., Swinnen, J., Zhang, L., Yi, H., Qu, Q., Boswell, M., & Rozelle, S. (2012, March). Can one laptop per child reduce the digital divide and educational gap? Evidence from a randomized experiment in migrant schools in Beijing. (Working Paper 233). Palo Alto, CA: Rural Education Action Project, Stanford University. Retrieved from olpc_paper_March_31_2012_Web.pdf
    Sadowa, D., & Shekhar, S. (2014). (Re)Prioritizing citizens in smart cities governance: Examples of smart citizenship from urban India. The Journal of Community Informatics, 10(3). Retrieved from
    Rangaswamy, N., & Cutrell, E. (2013). Antrhopology, development, and ICTs: Slums, youth, and the mobile internet in urban India. Information Technologies & International Development, 9(2) ICTD2012 Special Issue, 51-63.
    Fressoli, M., Arond, E., Abrol, D., Smith, A., Ely, A., & Dias, E. (2014). When grassroots innovation movements encounter mainstream institutions: Implications for models of inclusive innovation. Innovation and Development, 4(2), 277–292. DOI: 10.1080/2157930X.2014.921354
    NOTE: The analysis of grassroots innovation movements (GIMs) examines three case studies, one in Brazil and two in India.
    Maurya, N., Kumar, V., Patel, V., Mahanta, H., & Gupta, A. (2014). ICTs in support of grassroots innovation. Information Technologies & International Development, 19(1), 21-25.
     Middle East:
    Reddick, C. G., Abdelsalamb, H. M. E., & Elkadic, H. A. (2012). Channel choice and the digital divide in e-government: The case of Egypt. Information Technology for Development, 18(3), 226–246. DOI: 10.1080/02681102.2011.643206
     Latin and Central America and the Caribbean:
    Sandoval-Almazan, R., & Gil-Garcia, J. R. (2014). Towards cyberactivism 2.0? Understanding the use of social media and other information technologies for political activism and social movements. Government Information Quarterly, 31, 365–378. DOI: 10.1016/j.giq.2013.10.016
    Laguerre, M. (2013). Information technology and development: the Internet and the mobile phone in Haiti. Information Technology for Development, 19(2), 100–111. DOI: 10.1080/02681102.2012.690170
    Fressoli, M., Arond, E., Abrol, D., Smith, A., Ely, A., & Dias, E. (2014). When grassroots innovation movements encounter mainstream institutions: Implications for models of inclusive innovation. Innovation and Development, 4(2), 277–292. DOI: 10.1080/2157930X.2014.921354
    NOTE: The analysis of grassroots innovation movements (GIMs) examines three case studies, one in Brazil and two in India.
    Bugs, G. (2014). Improving citizenship and The Right To The City by using ICTs: Brazilian examples. The Journal of Community Informatics, 10(3). Retrieved from
    Cristia, J. P., Ibarrarân, P., Cueto, S., Santiago, A., & Severin, E. (2012). Technology and Child Development: Evidence from the One Laptop per Child Program. (Discussion Paper No. 6401). Bonn, Germany: Institute for the Study of Labor. Retrieved from
     Comparative, Cross-national Studies:
    Kremer, M., Brannen, C., & Glennerster, R. (2013). The challenge of education and learning in the developing world. Science, 340, 297-300.
    Gulati, G. J., Williams, C. B., & Yates, D. J. Predictors of on-line services and e-participation: A cross-national comparison. Government Information Quarterly, 31, 526-533. DOI: 10.1016/j.giq.2014.07.005

Recommended Readings:

    Diaz Andrade, A., & Urquhart, C. (2012). Unveiling the modernity bias: A critical examination of the politics of ICT4D. Information Technology for Development, 18(4), 281-292. DOI: 10.1080/02681102.2011.643204
    Harfouche, A., & Robbin, A. (2015). E-government implementation in developing countries: A neoinstitutional approach to explain failure. In L. Mola, F. Pennanola, & Stefano Za (Eds.). From information to smart society: Environment, politics and economics (pp. 315-327). (Lecture Notes in Information Systems and Organizations, Vol. 5). Berlin: Springer International Publishing.
    Harfouche, A., & Robbin, A. (2012). Inhibitors and enablers of public e-services in Lebanon. Journal of Organizational and End User Computing, 24(3), 45-68. DOI: 10.4018/joeuc.2012070103
    Yang T-M, Pardo T., & Wu, Y-J. (2014). How is information shared across the boundaries of government agencies? An e-government case study. Government Information Quarterly, 31, 637-642. /10.1016/j.giq.2014.05.002
    Garcia-Murillo, M. (2013). Does a government web presence reduce perceptions of corruption? Information Technology for Development, 19(2), 151-175. DOI: 10.1080/02681102.2012.751574

WEEK 16: Wrap-Up

M : In this session we will provide a wrap-up of the course and discuss questions related to the final assignment.

W : No class is scheduled. You should work on Assignment 3.

PART 3. Assignments & Evaluation


There are no formal examinations. Instead, there are a series of exercises that are designed to apply the various concepts and methods we learn in class. Each assignment builds on the previous assignment(s) to develop a foundation for analysis and evaluation. Please note that the quality of writing (communication) is evaluated and comprises part of the grade for each assignment. For more details on grading, see the grading rubric for each assignment.

Your written work will be evaluated according to five criteria:

Grading rubrics are provided in the Oncourse/Resources/Assignment folders. The rubric should be reviewed before and after the homework assignment is completed to ensure that the assignment has met the requirements.

Assignment Submission. Submission of assignments is through the Z513 Oncourse Drop Box. Please organize your Drop Box with folders for each assignment: Assignment 1.1, Assignment 1.2, Assignment 2, and Assignment 3. Place all drafts, original submissions, and revisions for each assignment in the appropriate folder. You may submit homework early in anticipation of an absence.

NOTE: Please submit assignments in MS Word (*.docx).

Assignment Draft Submission. Please note that drafts of assignments are welcomed. They should arrive in the Oncourse/Drop Box no later than five days before the due date of the assignment so that the instructor can review them in a timely fashion. Please be sure to notify the instructor when the assignment draft is placed in the Drop Box; click "notify instructor" in the folder where the assignment is uploaded (the step before you click on/hit upload).

Rewriting. Students may resubmit Assignments #1.1, #1.2, and #2 one time if the instructor recommends revision and resubmission. High quality written communication is a requirement and central goal of this course; it is also what is required in whatever professional career is pursued. If a homework assignment is returned with a recommendation that you revise and resubmit, please meet with me to discuss the assignment. A revision is welcomed for the first three assignments but it must be submitted no later than one week after I have returned it. It will be regraded and the revision eligible for full credit. The caveat is that if the original assignment were turned in late, your grade will be subject to late assignment penalties based on the date of the original paper submission (see below on late submissions). (Thanks to Professor Joshua Danish, Learning Sciences Institute.)

Style of References (Citations). You are required to use the APA form of citation. Copies of the APA style manual (6th edition) are available in print at the IU Main Library Reference Desk. Please be sure to use the latest version. In addition, resources for the style manual are available on the web. See also the IU Libraries web site for APA citation style. Also located in our Oncourse Resources/Assignment folder.

Late Submissions. Late homework is not ordinarily accepted. Documented medical reasons are typically the only exception made to this rule. In fairness to students who turn in assignments on time, all late papers will be penalized by lowering the earned grade by 10 percent for each day that an assignment is late. For example, if an assignment is worth a total of 20 points, your grade on the assignment is 17 points, and you hand in the assignment one day late, then your earned grade is 15 points.

Computer "Glitches" that Prevent Timely Assignment Submission. Students want to ensure that the loss of homework assignment documents does not take place. Work must be backed up, either on a flash drive or in a folder in Oncourse, SLIS server, or elsewhere, so that at least one copy of the work can be recovered. Late or incomplete papers will not be accepted when they are the result of failure to back up work. I ask everyone to create backups of completed or work-in-progress, either on a flash drive, or a server, or in a "working documents" folder in Oncourse (Drop Box).

Help with Written Work. Writing is the principal component of the grade for this course. Critical thinking must be translated into the written word. IU has a place to go for help. The IU Writing Center provides help in writing grammatically correct English. Its focus is, however, the undergraduate population. The service is not designed to help you write the type of papers expected in this class. This service is free and has, nonetheless, proved useful to students. The IU Writing Center also provides hourly services for which it charges a fee. Private tutoring on an hourly basis from a graduate student who is a skilled writer is also available; let me know if you want more information.


The following definitions of letter grades have been defined and approved by student and faculty members of the dedpartment's (formerly SLIS) Curriculum Steering Committee (November 11,1996) to help faculty evaluate academic performance and to assist students by giving them an understanding of the grading standards of the Department of Information and Library Science. Letter grades will be assigned according to a 100 point scale.

Grade GPA Points Meaning
A 4.0 100-96 Outstanding achievement. Student performance demonstrates full command of the course materials and evinces a high level of originality and/or creativity that far surpasses course expectations.
A- 3.7 90-95 Excellent achievement. Student performance demonstrates thorough knowledge of the course materials and exceeds course expectations by completing all requirements in a superior manner.
B+ 3.3 87-89 Very good work. Student performance demonstrates above-average comprehension of the course materials and exceeds course expectations on all tasks as defined in the course syllabus.
B 3.0 84-86 Good work. Student performance meets designated course expectations, demonstrates understanding of the course materials and is at an acceptable level.
B- 2.7 80-83 Marginal work. Student performance demonstrates incomplete understanding of course materials.
Unsatisfactory work. Student performance demonstrates incomplete and inadequate understanding of course materials
Unacceptable work. Course work performed at this level will not count toward the MLS or MIS degree. For the course to count towards the degree, the student must repeat the course with a passing grade.
F 0.0 <65 Failing. Student may continue in program only with permission of the Dean.

Course Success

Getting the most out of the class (with thanks to Professor R. Goldstone). This course should be one of the most important and interesting courses you take. The following pointers can help to ensure this:

PART 4. Course Policies

Alternative formats. It is the desire of our university that all students participate fully in its curriculum. To accomplish this, I need your help. If you have a disability or condition that compromises your ability to complete the requirements for this course, please notify me immediately. All reasonable efforts will be made to accommodate your needs. Please see me to make alternative arrangements.

Incompletes. Permission will be granted only under special circumstances, and is available only to students with a medical or family emergency, for which written documentation is required. Decisions about granting incompletes will generally not be made until the last three weeks of the course.

Attendance. You should make every effort to attend class. If you cannot attend class, please notify the instructor in advance. Attendance will factor into your final grade, specifically, as a function of what subject content is missed by non-attendance. Please inform the instructor if multiple sessions will be missed. Make–up work may be negotiated only in cases of documented, excused absences. A gentle warning: Students who miss more than two classess typically do not do well in this course.

Ethical Behavior. Indiana University and School of Library and Information Science policies on academic dishonesty will be followed. Students who engage in plagiarism, cheating, and other types of dishonesty will receive an F for the course. As a rule of thumb, when in doubt, cite the source! Academic (e.g., plagiarism) and personal misconduct by students in this class are defined and dealt with according to the procedures in the Code of Student Ethics. There is, however, much more to avoiding plagiarism than just citing a reference. To help you recognize plagiarism, the IU Writing Center has prepared a helpful guide: Plagiarism: What It is and How to Recognize and Avoid It. This is one of the few documents that actually gives you examples of what constitutes plagiarism and strategies for avoiding it. Carefully review this document and use it as a guide as you complete your assignments (in every course).

Here are some tips on how to avoid inadvertent plagiarism from my colleague Ralph Brower (FSU):

Violations of these rules in any assignment may be subject to a minimum penalty of a grade of zero (0) for the assignment and may result in a grade of "F" for the course. The instructor will clarify any of these expectations that you do not understand.

Changes in the Course Syllabus. The instructor reserves the right to change, omit, or append the Course Syllabus whenever she deems it appropriate to do so.

Prepared De3cember 2014.